A Case for mirativity and mirative markers in Kashmiri
The paper discusses the mirative use of a marker in Kashmiri that hasn’t been reported in grammars and linguistic works of the language. The use of this marker /hee/ with variants of /hai/ and /haa/, within declarative or negative sentences by a speaker conveys surprise or counterexpectation reflecting his or her sudden discovery or realization of something or an unprepared mind or disapproval. The marker is equally used by a speaker to generate surprise in his or her addressee. The marker usually follows the subject noun or pronoun as a kind bound affix in a sentence. Use of two variants of the marker in a single sentence, with one following the subject noun or pronoun and the other placed between auxiliary and main verb is also common in the language. A third marker /nai/ can also be found in affirmative and negative sentences with a regular negative marker with more or less similar functions as that of /hee/. However the three variants /hee – hai – haa/ have exclamatory functions also, when used independently or in combination with each other. The paper is a preliminary study highlighting the mirative use of these markers in various contexts.
Key words: Kashmiri, mirativity, exclamation, honorification, Dardic