Literal approach to translation: a classification and literature review
Anzhelika O. Lomaka
This paper studies the two approaches to translation which have been the subject of debate for a long time – the literal approach and the free approach. It presents the theoretical and conceptual framework of literal translation by illuminating the studies of a number of researchers with different attitudes to this phenomenon. The paper shows that there is no consensus among researchers on whether literal translation or free translation should be considered primarily an approach to translation. The study also analyzes the notion of literalism and distinguishes between the main types of literalisms (etymological, semantic, lexical and grammatical) by illustrating examples. The paper uses general scientific methods such as observation, analysis and synthesis, as well as descriptive, classification, generalization and selection methods. The author proves that literalism often causes the distortion of meaning and violates the norms of the target language. Therefore, the translator should carefully select equivalents to prevent the artificiality of translation.
Key words: literalism, literal translation, free translation, target language, source language