The word-formation category "displacement causation": mutational and modification semantics of German, Russian and Tatar verbs
Leysan A. Akhmetova – Milyausha R. Shaimardanova – Anna V. Zorina – Svetlana R. Nikishina – Munira A. Nazmutdinova – Rinat G. Gatin
The aim of the study is to determine the semantic, structural and cognitive specificity of the derivational embodiment of the semantics of "displacement" in the difference-structured languages. 16 subcategories of the derivational category "displacement causation", 102 derivational types are described in the article taking into account differential semi forming formants. It was determined that the maximum number of word-formative types had been found in German – 49 word-formative types (48%), and the minimum number of word-formative types has been stated in the Tatar language – 25 word-formative types (24,5 %). In the Russian language there were 28 word-formative types (27,5%). The German language consciousness is characterized by a precise description of the movement of an object, taking into account both the directional and temporal, technical and other characteristics of the action. It is also considered to be essential to explicit at the word-formation level the relation of the subject to the reality and the perception of oneself as part of space, that is the ability to express unique meanings which in other languages require additional lexical specification or exist at the connotative level. Russian and Tatar derived verbs are characterized by a high nominative potential and require a greater deal of inference. The empirical material presented in this article indicates that in the word-formation category "causation of movement" two main types of word-formation values in derivative verbs are implemented: modification, determined by an original verb of an additional characteristics, and a mutation, which is accompanied by a change in the categorial meaning of the derivative verb, its desemantization. There is a need to form a complete picture of the structural and semantic system of the Russian, German, and Tatar languages in general and the verb system in particular. Thus, this paper gives an opportunity to realize the peculiarities of linguistic consciousness of peoples, reconstruction of the linguistic picture of the world, and the development of intercultural competence of contemporary people.
Key words: derivational category, verbal derivation, derivational type, formant, displacement in space, German, Russian and Tatar languages